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Tomurile 5-6 (49-50), 2011-2012  


Cinematograful în istorie (I) 

According to the political context, moving images proved from the very beginning to be an ally or an enemy of History. Even the pre-cinema performances – various forms of lanterna magica – had to pay tribute to the political correctness of the day in reflecting France tribulations from Revolution to Restoration. The newsreel The Coronation of Russia’s Emperor Nicolas II, shot in 1896 by two of Lumière’s cameramen, features Romania’s future Queen Mary, who, 25 years later, reviewed in poignant terms that cultural experience in her Diary. In Romania, the first cinema public screenings were acclaimed for the future historic value of the shots, even if some producers, as Georges Méliès, indulged themselves in providing re-enacted newsreels, getting an ironic comment from King Edward VII of England. Romanian mass-media was also among the first ones to acknowledge the strong popular impact of historical features. Soon it was proved that, for small countries, the new art was a precious chance to tell the world the truth about their history. At the eve of 20th century, Romanian poets and writers, actors and filmmakers pleaded enthusiastically for the young art, seen, among others, in a revival mood of the 1848 movement, as a tool for promoting their patriotic ideals. The monumental period docudrama The Independence of Romania, produced by Leon Popescu and directed by Grigore Brezeanu, acquired unexpected contemporary meanings, especially in Transylvania, still occupied by the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Keywords: film as historical document, truth and manipulation, Lumière Brothers, Queen Mary of Romania, Georges Méliès, Boleslaw Matuszewski, Leon Popescu 


Monster as a Superhero: an Essay on Vampire Vogue in Contemporary Film Culture

The worldwide popular series Twilight is the mixed genre phenomenon in literature, media and cinema. After monstrous cinema interpretations of vampires, Edward Cullen becomes a vampire that women fall in love with. Narrative draws on the legend of vampires as well as on the fairy tales archetype of the love between The Lady and the Beast. Sexual connotation in the stories of vampires are not new, but the global identification of the audience with the main characters in the romantic-horror plot  in this series needs to be analyzed through the evolution of the vampire genre and psychology related issues. The popularity of this series and blossoming hybrid genre is related to the artificial catharsis and fulfillment of the market demand. Contemporary audience demands “to be special” and these profitable narratives are the fulfilled promise to the audience.
Keywords: vampire legends, teen vampire genre, abstinence narrative, vampires in cinema, catharsis


ipuri de gramatici în manuscrise muzicale de tradiţie bizantină

L’article présente l’analyse de la section Propaideia ou Protheoria qui contient des notions de grammaire musicale. Suite à l’étude des manuscrits conservés en Roumanie, nous avons établi la circulation des trois types de grammaires musicales. L’article offre la synthèse de ces grammaires (dans quel manuscrit se trouve chaque type) ; pour les deux premiers types sont prévues des exemplifications fac-similées, et pour le type I une traduction intégrale en roumain.
Mots clés propaideiaHagiopolitesIson, oligon, metrofonie, methodos, Ps.-Damaskenos 


Byzantine kalophonia, illustrated by St. John Koukouzeles’ piece Φρούρησον πανένδοξε in honour of St. Demetrios from Thessaloniki. Issues of notation and analysis 

The present paper explores some aspects of the so-called kalophonic musical style which flourished during the last centuries of Byzantium. It focuses on a masterpiece by St. John Koukouzeles, namely the epibole Φρούρησον πανένδοξε (Ο Allglorious, keep watch over the city), in honor of St. Demetrios, the protector of Thessaloniki, and is complementary to some previous musicological analysis of this piece by Stephania Meralidou. After a brief presentation of the old sticheron Ἔχει μὲν ἡ θειοτάτη σου ψυχή, whereof St. John takes his departing point for the kalophonic composition, the paper concentrates on a multi-level analysis of the epibole, firstly on the ground of the late middle-Byzantine notation, according to the ms Vlatadon 46 (A.D. 1551), and secondly by comparing the old notation to its slow exegesis in new-Byzantine notation by Chourmouzios Chartophylax (score and recording issued by the Greek Byzantine Choir, dir. L. Angelopoulos).
The analysis comprises several approaches like textual, music-architectural, modal, micro-syntactical, rhetorical, macro-syntactical, generative, comparative (cf. plates 7-12, 17-20. Since this material is also suitable for didactic purposes, the different plates are given again in the appendix, in form of exercises to be filled in by interested students).
The different analytical approaches reveal the highly refined melodic fabric of kalophonia with its plethora of theseis-combinations, the extensive use of music-rhetorical devices, basic norms of the complex art of musical exegesis in this style, as well as the beauty of this kind of melodies, which have been acknowledged to represent the ‘zenith’ of Byzantine music (Wellesz).
Keywords: Kalophonia, Musicological analysis of Byzantine chant, Hesychasm, St. Demetrios of Thessaloniki, Exegesis, Sectio aurea


Episcopul Marcu al Corintului şi opera sa muzicală (II)   

On s’est proposé, dans cette deuxième partie de l’étude consacrée à l’œuvre musical de l’évêque de Corinthe du XVe siècle, de mettre à jour, par des compléments bibliographiques, les données relatives à la question de savoir s’il ne s’agissait pas de deux personnages portant le même nom et, éventuellement, le même titre ecclésiastique. Tâche difficile, vu que les deux contemporains, s’il y en a deux, ont pratiqué le même style compositionnel, la kalophonia, équivalent byzantin de l’ars nova. L’analyse comparative du répertoire assez considérable attribué soit à l’un (Marc [Eugénicos] du monastère des Xanthopouloi, ou bien Marc, évêque [ou métropolite] de Corinthe), soit à l’autre (Marc l’hiéromoine tout court) des deux moines-compositeurs, reste à faire.
D’autre part, l’idée récente qui fait du célèbre Marc d’Éphèse, porte-voix des antiunionistes orthodoxes du Concile de Florence (1439), non seulement, comme on le savait bien, un hymnographe, mais aussi un habile musicien, nous paraît, à bon droit, sinon pour le moment, sans fondement.
Mots clés : Mark of Ephesus, kalophonia, Panagia Eikosifinissa, domestikos, Martin Gerbert


Franz Liszts Konzerte 1846 im Banat und in Siebenbürgen. Zum 200. Geburtstag des Klaviervirtuosen

Liszts große Konzerttournee 1846-47 durch die Länder Südosteuropas bedeutete nicht nur das Ende seiner Virtuosenlaufbahn sondern auch die Wahrnehmung der Musikkultur dieser Kulturlandschaften in der damaligen Welt. Die Medien berichteten lange Zeit davor und danach nicht nur über Liszts Konzerte, sondern auch über viele Einzelheiten im sozialen, kulturellen und politischen Milieu jener Zeit. Wir erfahren dabei viele Einzelheiten über bedeutende musikalische und kulturelle Persönlichkeiten der Donaufürstentümer, über Konzertsäle und Opernbühnen, lesen rumänische, ungarische und deutsche poetische Widmungen an den Klaviervirtuosen und spüren die bereits vorhandenen politischen Spannungen des Vormärz. Bis heute hat keine zweite Konzertreise eines Musikers in der südosteuropäischen Musikhistoriographie solche Spuren hinterlassen, wie die des damals 35-jährigen Klaviervirtuosen.
Schlüsselwörter: Klavierkonzerte, Südosteuropa, Banat, Siebenbürgen, Temeswar, Arad, Lugosch, Hellburg, Hermannstadt, Klausenburg, Kronstadt, Walachei, Bukarest, Jassy, Konstantinopel, Czernowitz, Kiew, Odessa, Filtsch, Beu, Limmer, Sofia Vlad-Radulescu, Dantan, Rákóczy, Teleki, Ambrozy, Karácsonyi, Bohus, Nako, Wesselény, Széchény, Battyány, Strauss


A Statistical Analysis of Melody Lengths in a North Indian Raga

The length of a melody simply refers to the number of notes in it. Melody lengths also provide interesting data sets that merit statistical attention individually, apart from their role in calculating melody significance. However, their individual study has been a neglected aspect in music analysis. This paper makes amends with a case study in a north Indian raga. A 0-2 truncated Poisson model seems to characterize the melody lengths.
Keywords: Raga; Melody; Melody length; Truncated Poisson model; statistical analysis


Echoes of Gordon Craig in the Romania of the 1930s and 40s

Europe between the two world wars was marked by contradictions and intense quests. In the world that emerged from the first global conflagration, Romania found itself at the border zone between the new post-revolutionary Soviet state, with its growing totalitarian character, and the old Western democracies undermined by new totalitarianisms. As much from the territorial point of view as from that of ideologies,  Romania is a place of meeting and confrontation between different currents and ideas, and different social and esthetical models, in the exploration of which Romanian intellectuals, artists, and writers become fervently involved. Traveling and reading bring them close to the inciting artistic life of the great cultural capitals of Europe: Rome, Paris, Berlin on the one hand, Moscow or Leningrad on the other. In theatre, to Stanislavski’s theories, already known from before the war, is now added the discovery of Meyerhold’s, Vakhtangov’s or Tairov’s experiments, combined with the fascination inspired by the stage accomplishments of Max Reinhardt, Copeau, Bragaglia, Piscator or Karl Heinz Martin. Towering above all, however, at the crossroads of several ways, is the tall, prophetic figure of Craig, “the instigator” of numerous stage creations everywhere in the world. Craig’s theories were circulated in various Romanian periodicals in more or less fragmentary form, as examples of innovative theatrical vision, but they also became the object of keen analysis. This paper traces the echoes of Craig’s conception among Romanian theatre thinkers and practitioners.
Keywords: theatre theory and esthetics, interbellum Romania, mask and Über-Marionette, Camil Petrescu, Haig Acterian, Dragoş Protopopescu, George Mihail Zamfirescu, Ion Sava


Quelques considérations sur l’histoire du bâtiment théâtral dans les villes danubiennes

Vers la fin du XVIe siècle et au début du XVIIe, commence en Europe la construction des bâtiments spécifiquement dédiés au théâtre. En Angleterre et en Espagne, les premiers édifices préservent la structure simple du lieu où on jouait avant : la cour d’auberge et le patio – modèles pour le théâtre élisabéthain et pour les corrales de comedias. En Italie, l’architecture théâtrale connut une autre évolution ; à la recherche du Beau idéal, on élève des élégants bâtiments clos, où la salle est richement ornée, où les décors créent l’illusion de perspective et où l’on utilise des machineries scéniques sophistiquées. Le modèle du théâtre « à l’italienne » allait être adopté, avec des variations, partout en Europe. Mais les coûts d’un tel édifice sont bien chers ; ils exigent un certain niveau de prospérité et de développement urbain. La tradition et le goût des habitants pour l’art du spectacle jouent, eux aussi, un rôle pas négligeable. Ce papier examine l’histoire du bâtiment théâtral dans les villes portuaires danubiennes, dans la perspective de l'influence qu'exerça le développement du commerce et des activités connexes sur la vie urbaine. Artère fluviale majeure de l’Europe, le Danube fut utilisé au long du temps par plusieurs réseaux marchands ; celles-ci ont contribué à l’essor des bourgs riverains et à l’ascension des couches moyennes. Ainsi se forme une bourgeoisie qui peut financer, d’une manière ou d’une autre, des théâtres municipaux et qui fournit un nombreux public payant. Il est vrai que cette évolution ne fut pas simultanée dans tout le bassin danubien ; des circonstances historiques diverses ont généré un décalage significatif, surtout entre la région occidentale et celle orientale du fleuve. Néanmoins, des similitudes existent, et le but de cet article est de les mettre en lumière. 
Mots-clés : Danube, commerce, bourgeoisie marchande, développement urbain, édifice de théâtre 


Sala Comedia din Bucureşti. Un secol de existenţă

Portretul unui artist – Cazimir Belcot


Daniel Suceava
EMMANOUHL ST. GIANNOPOULOS, T¦ CeirÒgrafa BuzantinÁj MousikÁj. 'Aggl…a. PerigrafikÕj kat£logoj tîn ceirogr£fwn yaltikÁj tšcnhj tîn ¢pokeimšnwn stˆj biblioqÁkej toà `Hnwmšnou Basile…ou [EMMANOUIL ST. GIANNOPOULOS, The Manuscripts of Byzantine Music. England. Descriptive Catalogue of the psaltic art manuscripts preserved in the libraries of United Kingdom], p. 175 

Daniel Suceava
DHMHTRIOS K. MPALAGEWRGOS kaˆ FLWRA N. KRHTIKOU, T¦ CeirÒgrafa BuzantinÁj MousikÁj. Sin©. Kat£logoj perigrafikÕj tîn ceirogr£fwn kwd…kwn buzantinÁj mousikÁj tîn ¢pokeimšnwn st¾n Biblioq»kh tÁj `Ier¦j MonÁj toà Ôrouj Sin© [DIMITRIOS K. BALAGEORGOS et FLORA N. KRITICOU, Les manuscrits de musique byzantine. Sinaï. Catalogue descriptif des manuscrits de musique byzantine conservés dans la Bibliothèque du Monastère du Mont Sinaï, Vol. I], p. 183

Ozana Alexandrescu
PREOT ION ANDREI GH. ŢÂRLESCU, Catalogul manuscriselor greceşti din Biblioteca Naţională a României, p. 188 

Carmen Popa
OCTAVIAN LAZĂR COSMA, Opera Română din Cluj. 1919–1999, p.189

Lucian Sinigaglia
Iulia Buciuceanu – Portrete în dialog cu Grigore Constantinescu, p.192

Iolanda Berzuc
VERA MOLEA, Teatrele din grădinile de vară ale Bucureştilor de altădată, p.193 

Corina Gugu
ARIADNA AVRAM (coord.), George Löwendal. Un aristocrat în luminile rampei, p. 195

Corina Gugu
CONSTANTIN PARASCHIVESCU, Jules Cazaban – profesionistul, p. 198

Iolanda Berzuc
MARIA-ZOE IONESCU şi CONSTANTIN PARASCHIVESCU, Ileana Predescu – o prezenţă magică, p. 200

Iolanda Berzuc
MIRCEA MORARIU, Cu şi despre Mariana Mihuţ, p. 203   

Texte recenzii


Lucian Sinigaglia
Don Quijote de Ludwig Minkus la Opera Naţională Bucureşti




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