Issues 7-8-9 (51-52-53), 2013-2015
Pictori scenografi în secolul al XIX-lea la Teatrul cel Mare din București
Oscar Wilde’s Social Comedies in Modern Greek Theatre (1908-1945)
The reception of Oscar Wilde in Greece has occasionally been studied, although modern theoretical works around aestheticism devote a significant part to his influence on Greek artists at the beginning of twentieth century. Some of his plays - mostly Salomé and A Florentine Tragedy (1908) as well as an adaptation of The Portrait of Dorian Gray (1916)- appeared in translation and on theatre stage just after the release of his postmortem apologetic De Profundis. His comedy The Importance of Being Earnest, was introduced to the Greek audience simultaneously with his tragedies in 1908, and one more melodrama, An Ideal Husband was staged in 1917. After that year, only his tragedies were repeated whereas his melodramas disappeared in the interwar years, to reappear again in a sudden and noticeable frequency in the late 1930s and early 1940s. The aim of this paper is to identify the reasons of the constant absence of Oscar Wilde’s melodramas from the Greek stage but also to explain their sudden adoption in the late thirties through a new perspective: the interaction between theatre and the newly growing art of cinema. During the controversial 30s, a considerable number of film versions of Wilde's social melodramas were made in Europe, most of them in Germany; these movies were projected in Greece, restoring thereby the Irish writer and his work. The seventh art, which was anyway supplied by writers, actors and theatre directors, became the channel for the Greek public to get acquainted with Wilde’ s social comedies as a whole. Additionally, it affected the repertoire of Greek theatre groups, including the National Theatre of Greece. The paper will focus on cinema and theatre investigation of the 1930s and 1940s (mainly until WWII) in Greece, exploring the interchangeable relationship between those two arts, as far as Wilde’s social melodramas are concerned, in the broader historical, social and cultural spectrum of the era. The essay will also provide a short resume of Wilde’s reception in Greece.
Keywords: Oscar Wilde, Greece, social comedies, modern Greek theatre
Din istoria scenelor bucureștene. Sala din Sărindar (I)
This paper traces back the 50 years’ history of The Small Theatre (Teatrul Mic) in Bucharest, as well as the centennial history of its house. Opened in 1913 in a fine French-style building on Sarindar Street, the theatre has undergone a few name changes starting out as Alhambra; over time, it was home to many acting companies and to a wide variety of shows, from revues and operettas to comedies and dramas. Under the management of great actress Maria Filotti (1939-1949) and with her private company, the theatre enjoyed a period of steady success. From 1964 until today, the building fosters The Small Theatre, a company renowned – especially during the communist regime – for its gifted actors and the innovative work of stage directors such as Radu Penciulescu, Valeriu Moisescu, Andrei Șerban, Dinu Cernescu, Mircea Daneliuc, Cătălina Buzoianu, Silviu Purcărete, Cristian Hadji‑Culea, Alexandru Darie.
This is the first part of our essay.
Keywords: theatre scene in Bucharest, Sărindar, Alhambra, Fantasio, Dida Solomon, N. Leonard
Universul teatral bucureștean și politicile culturale după 23 august 1944. Amurgul teatrului burghez (I)
La vie théâtrale bucarestoise entre le 23 août 1944 et le 31 décembre 1947 se situe dans un contexte politique complexe, marqué par le passage de la dictature d’extrême droite à l’ascension de l’idéologie imposé par l’Union Soviétique. La première partie de cette étude est dédiée aux créations d’artistes consacrés tels que Victor Bumbești, Aurel Ion Maican, Ion Sava, Ion Șahighian, Sică Alexandrescu, Traian Cornescu, Theodor Kiriacoff-Suruceanu, W. Siegfried. Les caractéristiques de cette période sont le répertoire extrêmement varié, les nombreuses premières, une continuité des parcours créateurs par rapport aux réalisations de l’époque antérieure. Un moment artistique novateur se manifeste dans Macbeth de Shakespeare, mis en scène par Ion Sava, spectacle dont la particularité est l’étonnante utilisation des masques.
Mots-clés : l'après-guerre en Roumanie, import de l’idéologie soviétique, vie théâtrale, continuités et ruptures
Repere ale sacrului în istoria teatrului. Nāṭyaśāstra
Nāṭyaśāstra is one of the most challenging writing in the history of theatre. Not only because its age and complexity, but because the uniqueness of its vision in which the sacred underlies the art of theatre and interferes with it. This research is based on textual criticism to emphasise the role of the sacred and its avatars (deities, ceremonies of consecration, symbols with religious and performing functions...) in the economy of theatre art as it is seen by the ancient Indian treatise on drama. In a history of the sacred circumscribed to the theatre space, Nāṭyaśāstra represents maybe the most relevant creation.
Keywords: Nāṭyaśāstra, sacred theatre, origin of the theatre, rituals, deities, symbols
De la neumă la interpretare sau despre procesul componistic în muzica bizantină
The paper discusses compositional techniques of the Byzantine sacred chant in the medieval and post-medieval periods. A pioneering research in local and international medieval musicology, the article relies on contemporary musical codices, theoretical treatises and liturgical books to chart the relationship between the musical notation and the actual sounds produced, as well as the liturgical, theological and cultural context in which a particular composition was created.
Keywords: Neumes, Byzantine musical manuscripts, composition techniques, Psalm chants, mimesis, orality
INANES ET INFICETI. Vechimea octoihului și stihurile celor opt glasuri
The topic of the grassroots of octaechia (h2 o3ktahci1a) as a taxonomical principle concerning the eight modes of the Byzantine music, as well as the octoechos in terms of liturgical book to which this principle has been applied (or has originated from), has undergone several periods of time while being object to research study. Since the legendary paternity of Saint John Damascene, the pioneer of the semiography and Byzantine hymnography in church tradition, passing through the reevaluation from the first decade of the last century, resulting in considering the octoechos of Severus, the Monophysit Patriarch of Antioch (V-VI c.), as being the first certification of the hymnographical octaechia, the recent studies in which, refuting the afore-mentioned hypothesis, written proofs had been revealed, including fragments on papyrus, prior to Damascenian epoch (Greek, Georgian, Armenian, Syrian, Arabic manuscripts, some recently discovered), try to prove that the origin of the cult book, structured on the eight-week continuous sequence of the Christian liturgical calendar, is hagiopolitan (Palestinian), therefore reflecting the liturgical service of the cathedral in Jerusalem.
The equivalence of the eight echoi (modes) of the psaltic theory with the harmoniai (a2rmoni1ai) of the Hellenic ancestry has been regarded from the beginning of more rigorous investigations on the phenomenology of the Byzantine musical art, as an artificial construction. But even those short dodecasyllabic poems, devoted to each echos that can be encountered within the Greek octoechoi in which the old ethos-doctrine of the Hellenic harmoniai late reflexion has been seen, have been considered, by the scolars who scientifically managed to publish and decipher the Byzantine musical monuments, factical poetical improvisations lacking any real ground. They appear in manuscripts starting with the XII century, in different variants, among which one later on (XVth century), published only in the midst of the last century. The most common variant that can be found in the printed books, seems to have an author, the Bishop Theodore of Cyzicus, a correspondent, among others, of emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus. Although these rhymes, that pretend to portray in a naïve and obsolete metaphor, the character of each echos, have been considered, in the first scientific printed anthology, as „barren and dull (uninspired)” (illos [...] inanes et inficetos), they are still able to transmit the echo of the theological conception in connection with music’s role of spiritual loftiness of music within the Christian cult, the way it is encountered in the first writings of the Fathers of Church, as well as other authors close to our days, such as Saint Nicodemus the Hagiorite.
Keywords: octoechos, octaechia, the eight modes of the Byzantine music, Saint John Damascene, Severus (Patriarch of Antioch), fragments on papyrus, harmoniai, Theodore of Cyzicus, Nicodemus the Hagiorite
Tipuri de gramatici în manuscrise muzicale de tradiţie bizantină (ms. III-88 Iaşi)
The present paper continues the research we have embarked upon concerning the Propaideia section extant in some of the notated manuscripts, published in SCIA.TMC 5-6 (49-50), 2011-2012 (Tipuri de gramatici în manuscrise muzicale de tradiţie bizantină). We focus now on the treatise compiled by Lavrentios the hierodeacon from Simonpetra, in 1710, which is preserved in Romania in a single copy. We will present the original Greek text, our Romanian translation together with an introductory commentary.
Keywords: e3nallagh` a2plh1, ktu1poj, Pseudo-Damaskenos, Lavrentios the hierodeacon from Simonpetra
Die Musik Richard Wagners im Banat und in Rumänien. Eine Rezeptionsgeschichte
Richard Wagner – an ihm schieden sich die Geister schon während seines Lebens. Dies geschah nicht nur in seinen deutschen Wirkungsorten, sondern auch im Südosten Europas. Schon früh fanden seine Werke auch im Banat und in Bukarest eine weite Verbreitung und das musikliebende Publikum mischte sich damals bereits in Pro- oder Kontra-Wagner-Diskussionen ein. In einem multikulturellen Raum wie das Banat, mit jahrhundertalten multiethnischen Erfahrungen und Traditionen, stieß der Wagnerkultus zuerst auf Ablehnung, später, ab 1930, wurden seine antisemitischen Anschauungen von den faschistischen Kreisen Rumäniens demagogisch missbraucht – ähnlich wie im restlichen Europa. Doch diese besondere Seite der Richard-Wagner-Rezeption hat auch eine faszinierende Auswirkung auf das allgemeine Musikleben in Rumänien und im Banat hinterlassen.
Keywords: Wagner, Liszt, Rumänien, Banat, Gräfin Nako, Temeswar/Timisoara, Arad, Steierdorf/Anina, Schwefelberg, Karl Huber, Temeswarer Philharmonischer Verein, Desiderius Jarosy, Zigeunerkapelle, Graf Zichy, Bayreuth, Karl Rudolf Karrász, Fritz Pauck, Stalin, Josef Brandeisz, Emanoil Ciomac, König Karl II. von Rumänien, George Enescu, König Michael von Rumänien, Hitler
Preotul Gheorghe I. Cotenescu (1886-1965), protopsalt, profesor, compozitor, dirijor, publicist şi om politic
The intellectual portrait of Father Gheorghe I. Cotenescu sketched out in this essay performs a dual function. While paying tribute to the work and fate of a neglected, but fascinating inter-war scholar, it serves as a tool which allows us to focus on the reasons leading to his rather minor contribution to the proper music composition process. He used most of his remarkable energy in his generation’s fight for the nation-state building (Greater Romania), and later on in the benefit of the church, seminary schools, politics, adult education lecturing, and local community, thus practically wasting his considerable gifts for music composing. For many years, he was one of the leading teachers, conductors and musicologists, preparing lots of talented students for careers in their chosen fields. When finally forced out to abandon his music teaching career by the far-right militarist regime and the impending second world war, there was nothing left for him, and the coming to power of the totalitarian communist regime completed his downfall. As a prisoner of conscience, treated as a pariah and avoided even by his closest friends, Cotenescu simply disappeared from the memory of the music specialists. However, his many-sided and time-consuming activities are strong valid reasons for re-valuation of how we measure his “successful” musical career.
Keywords: Romania, Gheorghe I. Cotenescu, I. Popescu-Pasărea, “Precantors’ Association”, “Culture” magazine, teacher, musicologist
Westernul românesc – între modelul american şi corectitudinea politică naţională
As early as 1957 Romanian critics recognized a "local" Western movie in At the Lucky Mill while director Victor Iliu admitted that he was influenced by American Westerns. Since 1968 Romanian cinema has participated in several co-productions with Western character. The three Romanian westerns: The Prophet, the Gold and the Transylvanians (directed by Dan Pița and Mircea Veroiu), The Actress, the Dollars and the Transylvanians (directed by Mircea Veroiu) and The Oil, the Baby and the Transylvanians (directed by Dan Pița) were made between 1979 and 1981. They were preceded by a cartoon with a Western plot, The Far West Girl (1970, directed by Olimp Vărăşteanu), the documentary If I were a Cowboy (1972, directed by Ion Moscu), as well by Western short stories and novels written by Petru Popescu in 1972, respectively by Nicolae Nicolae Frânculescu in 1975 and 1980. The advent of the Western as a genre in Romanian cinema is partly due to the influence of American genuine Western movies, as well as of spaghetti westerns, but mostly to the policy of the Romanian communist government. In this respect we have to consider the ideological "thaw" and a period of liberalism inaugurated by Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, a distancing from Moscow and an opening to the West after 1968, the visits of two American presidents in Bucharest (in 1969, respectively in 1975), as well as Ceausescu's visits to USA (in 1971 and 1978) and even promoting national-communism after 1971.
Keywords: spoof, co-production, ostern, spaghetti western, goulash western, the American West, surrogate, ideological war, ideological "thaw", the American Civil War, immigrant
Series, Telenovelas and Soaps: Tragedy in the Living Room
The focus of this work is to establish the inherent features of the serial genres in television that emerged from literature and discuss their importance and impact on the spectatorship. The rise and development of the serial genres will be discussed along with the growing influence on the society and individuals. How much do the genres of telenovelas and series differ in the context of cultural nuances and what is the genesis of the human urgency in retelling the melodramatic and tragic narratives? Enormous popularity deriving from these stories is reflected in the prime time broadcasting by Croatian, Serbian and Bosnian TV stations since 2002. The essay will explain the ontogenesis of the popularity, reflections and influences on societies and cultures, and features of this hybrid and changing genre of telenovelas and the most recent infatuation with Turkish serials in the TV region of West Balkans.
Keywords: serial literature and television, telenovela, soap opera, Turkish series, Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian series broadcast, Greek classical narrative and tragedy
„JEAN GEORGESCU – PIONIER ȘI SENIOR AL FILMULUI ROMÂNESCˮ
Glorie și marginalizare. Un destin emblematic pentru România secolului XX
Un francez la București
Jean Georgescu şi spectacologia caragialiană
Lanterna cu amintiri
Capodopera ca rezultat al unui cumul de condiţionări istorice
Jean Georgescu – criptogramele absurdului
Amintiri despre Jean Georgescu
RECENZII [BOOK REVIEWS]
CĂLIN CIOBOTARI, Cornelia Gheorghiu, între Ciocârlia şi Sarah Bernhardt, Editura Junimea, Iaşi, 2010, 219 p., ilustrații alb-negru, p. 247
ION CAZABAN, Dan Nemţeanu şi viziunea sa scenografică, Fundaţia Culturală „Camil Petrescu”, Editura Cheiron, Bucureşti, 2011, 180 p. cu il., p. 251
ION CAZABAN, Scena românească şi expresionismul, Fundaţia Culturală „Camil Petrescu” & Revista „Teatrul azi”, Editura Cheiron, Bucureşti, 2012, 228 p. cu il., p. 254
DOINA PAPP, O poveste cu Horaţiu, Editura Alfa, Bucureşti, 2012, 234 p., 91 ilustraţii alb-negru şi color, p.257
IULIAN BOLDEA, ŞTEFANA POP-CURŞEU (coordonatori), Aproape de scenă, George Banu. Eseuri şi mărturii, Curtea Veche, Bucureşti, 2013, 384 p., p. 261
VASILE VASILE, Tezaur muzical românesc din Muntele Athos, vol. I, Editura Muzicală, Bucureşti, 2007, XLI + 399 p., planşe color nenumerotate, hors-texte; indice de nume. Id., Tezaur muzical românesc din Muntele Athos, vol. II, Editura Muzicală, Bucureşti, 2008, XXV + 455 p., planşe color nenumerotate, hors-texte; bibliografie şi indice de nume. Id., Tezaur muzical românesc din Muntele Athos, vol. III, Editura Muzicală, Bucureşti, 2013, XLVI + 393 p., planşe color nenumerotate, în text; bibliografie şi indice de nume, p. 262
JOHN PHILLIP LANGELLIER, Custer: The Man, the Myth, the Movies, Stackpole Books, Mechanicsburg, 2000, 147 p. + il., p. 264
EDWARD BUSCOMBE, 'Injuns!': Native Americans in the Movies, Reaktion Books Ltd, Bodmin, 2006, 272 p + il., p. 269
DOMINIQUE NASTA, Contemporary Romanian Cinema: The History of an Unexpected Miracle, Columbia University Press, New York, 2013, 268 p. cu 55 ilustraţii alb-negru, p. 274
CRONICA VIEȚII ȘTIINȚIFICE [CONFERENCE REVIEWS]
Simpozionul Internaţional de Muzicologie Bizantină, ediţia a II-a: „300 de ani de românire (1713‑2013)ˮ, Universitatea Naţională de Muzică din Bucureşti, 12 decembrie 2013 (Costin Moisil), p. 277
Sesiunea omagială „Cineastul şi pictorul Jean Negulescu – 20 de ani de la dispariţieˮ, Institutul de Istoria Artei, 18 decembrie 2013 (Manuela Cernat), p. 277
„Divanul degustătorilor de film şi artă culinarăˮ, ediția a V-a, Portul Cultural Cetate, 26-31 august 2014 (Marian Țuțui), p. 278
Trei conferinţe internaţionale dedicate cinematografiei în toamna anului 2014 (Marian Țuțui), p. 281
Simpozionul „Muzicologul Mihai Rădulescu. Despre verticalitate în epoca realismului socialistˮ, Institutul de Istoria Artei, 19 mai 2015 (Lucian Sinigaglia), p. 283
Sesiunea de comunicări științifice „Pădurea spânzuraţilor – oglindă a Marelui Război: 50 de ani de la premieră, 100 de ani de la subiectˮ, Biblioteca Academiei Române, 26-27 octombrie 2015 (Daniela Gheorghe), p. 284
Dan Nasta (6 ianuarie 1919 – 15 septembrie 2015) (Isabella Drăghici)
Copyright © G.
Oprescu Institute of Art History, 2010
Calea Victoriei 196, sector 1, Bucharest, Romania
Phone and fax number: +4021.3214070