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Tomul 12 (56), 2018


Maeștrii de costume la Teatrul Național din București, de la inaugurare până în pragul Marii Uniri (1852–1918)

The paper presents the stages of creating the wardrobe of the National Theater in Bucharest from inauguration until 1918. In the context of a visible occidentalization, the theatre absorbs from abroad successful practices and works with master tailors able to bring the national scene on the map of the great European theatres. Theatre makers rely on the visibility and importance of the costumes, which is the reason why they do not hesitate to ask for the help of the specialised tailoring houses in Italy, France or Berlin. Thus, tailor Giacomo Galli and costume curator Gioachino Felice lay the foundation of the first tailoring workshop designed to create, repair and transform all the costumes necessary for
materializing the directorial concept. The work started by Giacomo Galli (1860–1878) is continued by A.I. Rallet (1878–1883), Ilie Bergher (1883–1905), Costache Hristescu (1905–1908), Grigore Popovici (1909–1911) and Gheorghe Nicolau (1908–1909/1911–1924). On a fruitful evolutionary path, the stage space is enriched by the contribution of theatrical costume companies Chiappa and Rancati in Milano, the Enrico Biati fabric company, whose constant presence has been recorded since 1878, Luigi Capuzzo in Venice or Hugo Baruch & Cie in Berlin.
Keywords: theatre costumes; Romanian tailor studio; stage design; Giacomo Galli; Ilie Bergher; Gheorghe Nicolau; Ernest Stern.

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Destine frânte. Frații Haig, Arșavir și Jeni Acterian

For almost half a century, in Romania, the communist censorship wiped out of the collective memory the names of many prominent intellectuals of the interwar period. Among them, the Acterian brothers – Haig, Arșavir and Jeni – outstanding representatives of the Bucharest Armenian cultural elite, tragic victims of the History turmoil which hit Romania between 1940 and 1950. Haig Acterian, brilliant stage director and theater theoretician, close friend of Gordon Craig and author of major essays on theater history and aesthetics, perished in 1943 on the WWII Eastern Front. Arșavir Acterian, well known publisher and lawyer in the Thirties, twice sent to jail by the communist regime installed in 1948, could resume his writing career only after 1990. Jeni Acterian, gifted theatre director and fabulous memoirist, forced to conceal her identity under a false name when the monarchy was replaced by the communist republic, died prematurely, killed by fear and grief.
In 1997, Haig Aterian’s letters sent to his wife, actress Marietta Sadova, from Vienne, Berlin and Rome where he had got scholarships, were brought together and published by his brother Arșavir in Dragoste și viață în lumea teatrului (Love and Life within the Theater World), revealing testimony of generous and bright ideas for reforming the theatrical and cinema esthetics and production.
Keywords: Armenian personalities in Romania, Mircea Eliade, Gordon Craig, Iosif Igiroșianu, theatre, stage director, film director, letters, memories, lost generation, dictatorship, prison, communism, censorship.

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Copişti de manuscrise psaltice din fondul grecesc al Bibliotecii Academiei Române (I). Constantin din Anhialos şi ms. BAR gr. 1477

Une particularité assez fréquente, que l’on signale habituellement au début de la recension d’un manuscrit, a rapport à son integrité materielle: on constate qu’il est mutilé au début et à la fin, dans ce dernier cas la subscriptio étant absente. Néanmoins, en comparant des échantillons publiés ces derniers temps dans les catalogues de manuscrits grecs à notation neumatique, toujours plus nombreux, on pourrait analyser des ressemblances et même avancer des certitudes, en gardant tout de même la prudence requise par la discipline codicologique. C’est, à notre opinion, le cas du ms. BAR gr. 1477, dans lequel on trouve à plusieures reprises le syntagme παρ’ ἐμοῦ („par moi”), indice évident de propriété intelectuelle du scribe. La publication du quatrième volume du Catalogue des manuscrits de musique byzantine. Mont Athos (2015) par le Professeur Grégoire Stathis d’Athènes nous a fourni une prevue indirecte, selon nous, que l’engolpion 1477 de la BAR serait de la main du protopsalte Constantine d’Anchialos, fameux compositeur de musique ecclésiastique de la fin du 16e siècle. Les quelques échantillons d’écriture reproduits dans le corps du catalogue peuvent faire prevue des similitudes d’écriture entre les mss. Iviron 1242 et 1266, censés être de la main de Constantine, et notre BAR gr. 1477. La liste des manuscrits que l’on peut attribuer au protopsalte d’Anchialos serait dorénavant augmentée avec une quatrième unité.
Mots clés: codicologie, archivistique des manuscrits, histoire du livre, manuscrits à notation musicale neumatique (psaltique), engolpios, le syntagme παρ’ ἐμοῦ, Anchíalos, Constantin d’Anchíalos (protopsalte), Théodose (hiéromoine, métropolite, copiste), Matei Basarab, Parthenios I (patriarche oecuménique), Radu Mihnea, Aron Vodă (le monastère Aroneanu), Th`n o7ntwj Qeoto1kon (timiotère).

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Hermeneutică muzicală

The first part of this study of musical hermeneutics starts from a critical remark that a famous opera singer made, while she was part of a M.A. in the USA, at Juilliard’s; she considered that Verdi did not observe the manual-classical chanting of words (vocables). The author shows that this so-called ‘mistake’ represents the actual contribution brought by Verdi to the evolution of the lyrical theatre (the opera), as compared to his predecessors – like Rossini, Donizetti, Bellini, etc. In fact, he overcame the modality proposed by the baroque opera and the seria opera, that is, to treat feelings in general in a musical manner. As compared to his predecessors, Verdi considered that music should detect and render the feelings and frames of mind of his characters, in correlation with each of their personalities, but, especially, in correlation with the precise situation in the development of the dramatic conflict in which these characters are ‘caught’, and take part in. This was revolutionary. We do not have here a ‘mistake’, or a ‘slip’ of the composer Verdi – in the way some words are accentuated, but with a great innovation accomplished by Verdi the “playwright”, in his attempt to penetrate the inner lives of his characters from a psychological point of view. Consequently, this is not Verdi’s mistake (the singer’s exact words were: “his phrase is badly written”), but the insufficient attention (to say the least!) and concentration on the part of the famous singer.
The second part of this study is dedicated by the author to the ‘minor’ and fundamentally erroneous and almost degrading manner in which some see the character Don Ottavio from the opera Don Giovanni by Mozart. The function that the great playwright Mozart gave to this character in the dramatic economy of the opera is completely overlooked; that is, in Mozart’s view, such artistic economy needed a presence whose ethic load should show the protagonist’s total lack of scruples in a real light; such need is felt not only from a musical point of view, but also from the perspective of that of the balance of the dramatic construction.
Keywords: Mozart, Verdi, Donizetti, lyrical theatre, Juilliard, cybernetics.

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“Good and Bad”: Ideology and Persuasiveness in Post-war Bosnian Cinema

The artistic attempt to convey the reality or the author’s vision of the reality can be reduced to the simple communication process between the creator of the strategic artistic idea or message aimed at the emotions of the recipient. Manipulation of the effects that the artwork has on its viewers can result in creating stereotypes. Such impact is vividly evident in the motion pictures. Ever since its beginnings the film has exerted enormous influences on the audience. Why are we watching movies? We do understand that the material before our eyes is not reality, but nevertheless we believe it. The stories need heroes and enemies in the film reality. In this “reality” the perception of what happened in a certain period of history is interpreted depending on author’s believes, but also on political adequacy at the ideas of the time, and even on the origin of the finances for the moviemaking. The features of cinematography such as making the choice of POV (where and why to place the camera) and storytelling (narrative about Enemies and Saviors), subjugated to the stereotypes along with the propaganda possibilities and impacts of film contents and contexts in reference to the war and post-war reality, are the main focuses of this essay.
The reviewed and referenced Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian films are: No Man’s Land, Turneja, Nafaka, Djeca, Ostavljeni, Grbavica, Gori vatra, Parada, Srpski film, 10 minuta, Notre musique, Savršeni krug, In the Land of Blood and Honey, Venuto al Mondo, The Frog, Shot through the Heart, Welcome to Sarajevo, The Hunting Party, Krugovi, and Halimin put.
Keywords: Bosnian film, Propaganda, Greek Tragedy, Stereotypes, Archetypes of Good and Bad, post-war Cinema of ex-Yugoslavia.

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N O T E 

Romanian Films in China (1953–1963)

On 5th October 1949, a few days after the foundation of the People’s Republic of China, Romania officially established diplomatic relations with the new regime. Since then, friendship and cooperation have always been the main themes between the two countries. In August 1953, a Romanian film was shown for the first time in China (Viața învinge/Life Triumphs, directed by Dinu Negreanu). During the next years, the distribution of Romanian movies continued at a sustained rhythm. With the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)1 and the enhancement of censorship to the utmost, the domestic film production decreased dramatically, while bringing new movies from abroad was no longer permitted. However, a number of Romanian films released prior to 1966 remained among the few foreign movies that were still circulated throughout the country. From the late 70s to the early 90s, about forty new Romanian films were distributed in China.
This paper focuses on the Romanian films screened in China from 1953 to 1963. As some of the first and most popular foreign movies which could be seen by the local audience, they demonstrate the typical characteristics of the Chinese cinematographic culture during that decade.
Keywords: Romanian cinema, art and propaganda, film market in China.

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Ion Cazaban, Scenografia românească în secolul XX (Decorul), Fundaţia Culturală „Camil Petrescu” și Revista „Teatrul azi”, Ed. Cheiron, Bucureşti, 2017 (reviewed by Oltița Cîntec), p. 115

Florica Ichim (editor), Toca se povestește, Fundația Camil Petrescu și Revista „Teatrul Azi”, Ed. Cheiron, București, vol. I–II, 2015–2016 (reviewed by Lucian Sinigaglia), p. 116

Dumitru Olărescu, Hermeneutica filmului despre artă, Ed. Epigraf, Chișinău, 2017, 352 pagini, 65 ilustrații alb-negru, filmografie selectivă (reviewed by Marian Țuțui), p. 118

Ana-Maria Plămădeală, Emil Loteanu: splendoarea și prăbușirea visului romantic, Ed. Epigraf, Chișinău, 2017, 222 pagini (reviewed by Marian Țuțui), p. 119

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Expoziția Il était une fois... Sergio Leone, Cinemateca franceză, Paris, 10 octombrie 2018 – 27 ianuarie 2019 (reviewed by Adrian-Silvan Ionescu), p. 123

Două conferințe despre cinema la Beijing, 23 și 24 mai 2018 (reviewed by Marian Țuțui), p. 136

The Third International Conference on Balkan Cinema “The Great War(s): Our Story”, Institutul de Istoria Artei „G. Oprescu”, București, 8–10 mai 2018 (reviewed by Adrian-Silvan Ionescu), p. 138

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ION CAZABAN (19 octombrie 1935 – 9 iulie 2018) (Daniela Gheorghe)
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Copyright © G. Oprescu Institute of Art History, 2010