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Tomul 13 (57), 2019


Universul teatral bucureștean și politicile culturale după 23 August 1944. Prin furtunile realismului socialist (I)

En Roumanie, la doctrine pseudo-esthétique du « réalisme socialiste » a été officiellement mentionnée pour la première fois au IIème Congrès de l’Union des Syndicats des Artistes, des Écrivains et des Journalistes, tenu à Bucarest du 18 au 20 octobre 1947. Cette doctrine, dont l'influence massive sur la vie théâtrale à Bucarest nous essayons de sonder dans la présente étude, a été exportée par l’Union Soviétique. Dans le monde du théâtre, comme dans d’autres milieux artistiques, la mise en pratique des dogmes du réalisme socialiste a eu lieu en conjonction avec des méthodes visant à attraper dans le piège idéologique à la fois les artistes et les spectateurs.
Mots-clés : réalisme socialiste, idéologie, la lutte des classes, la vie théâtrale à Bucarest, spectacles pour les artistes, séances de production.

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Relațiile Țărilor Române cu Muntele Athos și manuscrisele românești din bibliotecile acestuia. Mănăstirea Sfântul Pavel. Date noi

Research carried out by Romanian and foreign experts at Mount Athos deals with almost 600 years of Romanian-Athonite relations. The oldest monastic patronage was undoubtedly that of the Georgians, who arrived in quite a large number in the holy peninsula since 972. The fall of Byzantium, in 1453, ceased the aids of the Byzantine emperors, which continued by Romanian rulers, such as Stephen the Great, Neagoe Basarab, or Michael the Brave. These gifts, made by the Romanian princes to support monasticism in the holy Greek peninsula, played nonetheless an important political role. The contribution of the “Romanian Byzantium” – as it was called by Nicolae Iorga – was not only of a donor, but also of a preserver of the Athonite cultural values. Following the journeys to Mount Athos of the Romanian scholars Teodor T. Burada, in 1882, Marcu Beza, in 1933, and of the Byzantinologist Gabriel Millet, in 1915, a remarkable Romanian cultural and spiritual treasure was brought to light, being preserved over the centuries. Precious manuscripts, from liturgical to science books, including an impressive collection of incunabula and ecclesiastical objects of great value, provide evidence of the Romanian-Athonite secular relations.
Our present research explores an important collection of manuscripts (most of which are music manuscripts), held at the Holy Monastery of Agiou Pavlou (Athos). The rich repertoire of songs written by great Byzantine and post-Byzantine composers is spread through more than 75 such manuscripts, among which Doxastaria, Anthologia, Irmologia and Sticheraria.
Keywords: Mount Athos, Byzantium, monasticism, Nicolae Iorga, manuscripts, incunabula, Agiou Pavlou, music, post-Byzantine, Anthologia, Doxastaria, Irmologia, Sticheraria

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Uniforma, costum în filmul istoric. O abordare critică

The set and/or costume designers of any historical and especially war movie have to be historically accurate to the ninth degree and recreate to the last detail the characters’ look embodied by the actors in any period drama.
For the modern times and wars, the task in hand is easier, because the military uniform regulations are still available so the costume designer can follow to the letter the details of execution for a modern replica uniform (dimensions, cuts, stripes, embroideries, epaulets, etc). The historical and especially the war movies pay tribute to the heroes and are generally uplifting viewing experience, but when filmed with the utmost adherence to the historical accuracy they bring also an unparalleled educational dimension. In Romania the military uniform regulations and updates were made in 1873, 1893/1895, 1912, 1927 and 1930. In the 1877-1878 Oriental War the soldiers wore the uniforms issued in 1873 while in the Great War they wore the battle dress issued in 1912.
However, the movies capturing these crucial periods in the making of the Romanian nation, albeit well intended, as a piece of military costume history do not always stand scrutiny. Not to speak about the ill choice of actors who were far from resembling the features of the real protagonists.
Keywords: movie, The Oriental War of 1877–78, The Great War, King Carol I, King Ferdinand, Queen Marie, General Henri M. Berthelot, Fieldmarshal August von Mackensen, director Sergiu Nicolaescu.

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Neorealism and Georgian Cinema

Italian neorealist films were first screened publicly in the Soviet Union in the early 1950s due to the fact that they had affinity with the tenets of socialist realism. On the other hand Italian neorealist filmmakers acknowledged the contribution of the Soviet avant-garde filmmakers (Sergei Eisenstein, Vsevolod Pudovkin, Alexander Dovzhenko) to their cinematic vision. A significant example of the Italian neorealism impact on Georgian cinema may be found in Magdana’s Donkey (1955), the debut film of Revaz (Rezo) Chkheidze and Tengiz Abuladze.
Although more subtle and with more original features, one can detect neorealist influence even in Chkheidze and Abuladze second films, Our Yard (1956), respectively Someone Else’s Children (1958).
Keywords: Georgian cinema, neorealism and socialist realism, Rezo Chkheidze, Tengiz Abuladze

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From Birthing to Sexing the Nation: Romanian Historical Film and Romantic Nationalism in the Socialist Era

Using the historical saga Columna/The Column (Mircea Drăgan, 1968) as case study, in this article1 I attempt to show that early socialist-era cinema in Romania (and particularly historical film) endeavored to redefine the nation in the 1960s following the precepts of pan-European romantic nationalist movements proliferated in Romania particularly in the poetry of the 19th century. In the process of turning myth into visuals and film into a history textbook, I identify the ambivalence in which the socialist leadership was caught when attempting to erase the country’s colonial past, paralleling the early Roman conquest of Dacia in antiquity with the long history of imperial occupation. This ambivalence, I argue, left an indelible imprint on the film, following which a particular brand of nationalism survived unscathed in Romanian collective consciousness.
Keywords: ethnogeny, national identity, nationalist-communism, colonial past, myth.

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Films by Lucian Pintilie: Modernism, Political Satire and Post-Cold War Issues

This article analyzes the films of the world acclaimed Romanian film director Lucian Pintilie both as artistry and ideology. In terms of international recognition, his work can be divided into two periods: before and after the end of the Cold War. In terms of style, he remained faithful to clear modernist film methods and to political satire by constructing absurd circumstances. Especially in his post-Cold War works, he directly pointed to the reckoning of problems left over from the recent history and the complex situation of the post-communist society. In addition, this paper places his works in the context of international art films, analyzes the reasons why he became a representative director in Romania since the 1960s, gaining worldly fame especially after 1990, and discusses his important influence on Romanian New Wave filmmakers.
Keywords: Romanian Cinema, post-Cold War, international film festivals, political satire

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Amintiri din copilărie și din prima tinerețe despre Mihnea Gheorghiu

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MARIAN PETCU (coord.), Enciclopedia cenzurii din România, vol. I (1640–1945) și vol. II (1946-2018), Ed. Ars Docendi, București, 2019, 732 p. (recenzie de Marian Țuțui), p. 145

The New Romanian Cinema (editor: Christina Stojanova, cu participarea Danei Duma), Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2019, 324 p., cu o introducere de Christina Stojanova (recenzie de Mihai Fulger), p. 147

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Vizitând Scenkonstmuseet – Muzeul Artelor Spectacolului din Stockholm (cronică de Isabella Drăghici), p. 151 

Centennial of the Birth of Mihnea Gheorghiu, Romanian Academy, 7 May 2019 (cronică de Vlad Bedros și Lucian Sinigaglia), p. 155 

„Scurtă istorie a comunicării cinematografice româno-chineze”, o masă rotundă organizată în cadrul TIFF, ediția a 18-a, mai-iunie 2019 (Marian Țuțui), p. 158 

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DANIEL SUCEAVA (4 aprilie 1950 – 31 martie 2019) (autor: Nicolae Gheorghiță)
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Copyright © G. Oprescu Institute of Art History, 2010