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Tomurile 15-16 (59-60), 2021-2022


Universul teatral bucureștean și politicile culturale după 23 August 1944. Prin furtunile realismului socialist (II)

La doctrine du réalisme socialiste prévoyait la valorisation du patrimoine littéraire national et universel selon ses propres dogmes. L'enrôlement de Ion Luca Caragiale a commencé par la représentation de la comédie Une lettre perdue, mise en scène par Sică Alexandrescu. Cet article présente la réalisation et la réception critique du spectacle.
Mots-clés : Ion Luca Caragiale, Une lettre perdue, Sică Alexandrescu, critique théâtrale

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Boală, identitate, teatru – un parcurs artistic

My study aims at observing ways in which artists manage to transpose testimonials of the illnesses they live: clinical manifestations of depression, terminal diseases, aphasia, epilepsy, Alzheimer, Tourette syndrome, autism – to name but a few. But it also aims at focusing on what changes in terms of habits of watching a performance. We tend to show our artistic preferences being on the safe side, knowing it is fiction. What changes when we face a double exposure created by topics such as illnesses? How do we watch vulnerability and authentic suffering on stage and what do we choose to see? Do spectators need to undergo a process of unlearning to watchperformances, especially when they challenge us and take us out of our comfort zone?
Keywords: audience, disability, Tourette, depression, unlearning, narrative medicine, performance, artistic partnership

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Romania and Byzance après Byzance: the case of musical culture

The existence of Christian music in the territory of Romania is attested through written documents since the 4th century (St. Sava from Buzău, a church singer and martyr, 12th April, A.D. 372, as stated by S. Barbu Bucur). According to musicologist Gheorghe Ciobanu, Romanians adopted Byzantine music in the 6th century. The languages used in the ecclesiastical services in different places and times were Greek (from the first centuries up to 1863), Latin (in early times), Slavonic (from the 10th century, up to about the 18th century), and Romanian (since the 16th century until today, firstly written with the Cyrillic alphabet, and mainly from the 20th century onwards with the Latin one).
The paper contains a brief historical and geographical overview about Byzantine music in the regions of Walachia, Moldavia and Transylvania, with focus on the School of Putna Monastery (16th century) and early Romanian composers, like Eustatie Protopsaltul, as well as on the process of ‘românire’ (adaptation of Byzantine chant in Romanian language) of the Church music repertory, which began on large scale with the famous Romanian Psaltike of Filothei sin Agăi Jipei (1713), was carried further by great composers like Macarie Ieromonahul and Anton Pann (19th century), and is still continuing up to nowadays.
Some of the main themes addressed are the following ones:
• aspects of the românire-process, like translations of texts and shaping of the ecclesiastical Romanian language, adaptation of already existing Byzantine chants into Romanian, taking into account the differences in metrics and phrase structure, composition of new chants, directly in Romanian, the prosomoion singing;
• the exegesis, and the rediscovery of older layers of repertory;
• Romanian singing style and the larger issue of performance practice;
• polyphonic Church music since the 19th century, the national Romanian Music School, and contemporary Romanian composers inspired by Byzantine music;
• the renewal and flourishing of Romanian Psaltic Art since the end of the 20th century until today.
: Psaltic Art, Byzantine musicology, old Romanian music

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The Manakia Brothers and Bitola Are Back in the News

A hundred years ago, on August 26, 1921, brothers Ienache (1878–1954) and Miltiade (1882–1964) Manakia opened their cinema in Bitola. In 1939 the cinema was destroyed by fire. It was rebuilt exactly 100 years later according to the original plans in the same location. It is an occasion for a remembrance of the two brothers’ activity and for a celebration of Bitola, an effective cultural capital of the Balkans and a Vlach metropolis.
Keywords: Balkans, Vlachs, history of photography, official photographer, photo studio, ethnography, cinema theatre, paternity over a film

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Mythology and Anti-Mythology in John Ford’s The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance

John Ford’s The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance is usually seen as a sceptical indictment of American mythology – the first in a continuous streak of films that revise the conquest of the frontier and the archetypes traditionally presented in this kind of story. If that is true, then Liberty Valance invites a radical shift in our political relation to American cosmology, system of symbols, and communal culture. Is it right to present this film in this light, though? For me, the answer is no. To answer this question, I investigate what position The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance holds in John Ford’s filmography, concluding that in light of his previous and subsequent works, it is not possible to see in this film any indictment of American mythology, since the picture uses symbols and archetypes of typical narratives of the western genre in a positive light.
: myth, symbolism, politics, cinema, narrative, western, classic Hollywood

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Reconstituirea destinului unui film-reper al cinematografului românesc: Reconstituirea lui Lucian Pintilie (I)

Lucian Pintilie’s Reconstruction/Reenactment, a film adaptation of Horia Pătrașcu’s novella with the same title, is considered by local critics one of the best, if not the best Romanian film ever made. Shot in the summer of 1968 but launched in Romanian cinemas (more precisely, in one cinema theater in the center of Bucharest) in January 1970, Reenactment acquired the status of a myth among the local intelligentsia even before being released. However, in the shadow of the myth have grown numerous exaggerations and fabrications, disseminated – out of ignorance, out of interest, or simply for rhetorical effect – not only by circumstantial commentators but also by distinguished intellectuals. In the present research paper, based primarily on documents, we aim to reveal the truth behind the myth and reconstruct the destiny of this landmark film of Romanian cinema.
Keywords: Romanian cinema, Horia Pătrașcu, Lucian Pintilie, socialist Romania, film adaptation, censorship, film distribution

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Cel mai vechi text cunoscut al istoriei lui Alexandru Macedon: manuscrisul 5 din Biblioteca Institutului Grec de la Veneția

Codex 5 of the Library of the Greek Institute in Venice containing the “History of Alexander the Great” is unique among Byzantine manuscripts. It is the only deluxe manuscript with extensive illustration which survives from Byzantium. The impetus behind its production was surely more than simple literary interest. As rulers who claimed hegemony over “all the East,” the Trapezuntine emperors must have found a particularly compelling model in Alexander the Great. Alexios III Komnenos, described as emulating Alexander by the court poet Stephanos Sgouropoulos, is most likely the emperor pictured in the manuscript´s frontispiece, and the one who commissioned the book.
Sometime in the second half of the fourteenth century, a team of three artists painted the manuscript’s elaborate illustrations. The Georgian text, or Georgian-looking script, used within the illustrations indicates that these artists either came from Georgia, or were part of the Georgian-speaking population living under Trapezuntine rule. The meticulous detail that went into the illustration is matched by the manuscript’s carefully crafted text. Both text and illustrations appealed directly to the imperial patron and facilitated his identification with the figure of Alexander.
: codex, library, Greek, Venice, history, Georgia, Byzantium, Trapezunt, Alexios Komnenos, manuscripts, Alexander the Great, Stephanos Sgouropoulos

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Passionsspiele în Oberammergau, Bavaria – un spectacol popular de anvergură (Adrian-Silvan Ionescu), p. 125

Conferința internațională inaugurală a Centrului de Cercetare asupra Muzicilor Secolului XIX (Centre for Nineteenth-Century Music Studies/CNCMS), București, 10-11 decembrie 2020 (George-Andrei Butcă), p. 142

Participări ale cercetătorilor Institutului de Istoria Artei „G. Oprescu” la festivaluri internaționale de film din 2021 (Mihai Fulger, Marian Țuțui), p. 146

Lansarea cărții Studii de film românesc și balcanic de Marian Țuțui la Cinemateca Română, București, 13 ianuarie 2022 (Mihai Fulger), p. 151

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70 de ani de la fondarea Institutului de Istoria Artei „G. Oprescu”, coord.: Adrian-Silvan Ionescu, ediție îngrijită de Ioana Apostol și Virginia Barbu, Editura Academiei Române, București, 2020, 484 p. (Mihai Fulger), p. 155

NANCY SCHOENBERGER, Wayne and Ford. The Film, the Friendship and the Forging of an American Hero, Doubleday, New York, 2017, 242 p. + il. (Adrian-Silvan Ionescu), p. 161

GERGANA DONCHEVA, Солунският кинофестивал: История, предизвикателства и метаморфози [Thessaloniki Film Festival. History, Challenges and Metamorphoses], The Institute of Balkan Studies, Sofia, 2021, 437 p., tables (Marian Țuțui), p. 167

MARIAN ȚUȚUI, Studii de film românesc și balcanic, Editura Noi Media Print, București, 2021, 216 p. (Titus Vîjeu), p. 168

LYDIA PAPADIMITRIOU, ANA GRGIĆ, Contemporary Balkan Cinema. Transnational Exchanges and Global Circuits, Edinburgh University Press, 2020, 304 p., 45 black & white illustrations, tables and index (Marian Țuțui), p. 170

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Balkan Cinema without a Light: Boris Nonevski (Marian Țuțui), p. 173
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Copyright © G. Oprescu Institute of Art History, 2010