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Tomul 14 (58), 2020

Din istoria scenelor bucureștene: sala din Sărindar (II)

This paper traces back the rich history of a well-known playhouse in Bucharest, Sărindar Street (today, Constantin Mille Street), home since 1964 of The Small Theatre (Teatrul Mic). As we showed in the first part of our study, this entertainment venue opened in 1913 in a fine French-style building. Over time it has fostered several acting companies and a wide variety of shows, from revues and operettas to comedies and dramas.
The second part of our essay focuses on the theatre and revue ensembles that played here either occasionally or for whole seasons from the autumn of 1929 till the spring of 1939. Among them, the most successful was the Alhambra Revue Company, run by Nicolae Vlădoianu and Nicușor Constantinescu. Together with composer Ion Vasilescu and a team of young and gifted performers, they managed to create an institution that matched Cărăbuș Theatre, founded in 1919 by the famous comedian Constantin Tănase, much loved by Romanian public.
Keywords: theatre houses in Bucharest, the 1930s, Alhambra, Stroe and Vasilache, Oleg Danovski, Modern Theatre, Ionel Țăranu, Ion Iancovescu, G. Timică

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Scările și makamurile expuse într-un manuscris muzical al lui Ilie Stoianovici (ms. rom. 2233 BAR)

The present article brings to attention a theoretical work of the nineteenth century, written in Romanian, concerning the musical scales and structures of the neo-Byzantine music. The writing entitled ‘The Scale’ was annexed to ‘The Second Book of Anthology’ (1832), a psaltic manuscript registered at the Romanian Academy Library (BAR) as ms. rom. 2233. The explanations included in the Scale are based on the rules of the hrisantic theory adopted in the Orthodox Church since 1814. These terms include 21 Ottoman makams. The first part of the article deals with general aspects of the researched manuscript, regarding to autorship and content and the second part provides the transliterated version of the text.
Keywords: Byzantine music, manuscript, Ilie Stoianovici, musical scales, makams

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Un cântec revoluționar din secolul al XIX-lea

This paper presents a song of independence from the Ottoman oppression, aspiration fed by ideas spread by the 1789 French revolution. The song is found in a large collection of secular songs written in 1813, in Iasi, Moldavia by Niképhoros Kantouniarés, archdeacon of Antioch. Psaltés, composer, teacher of church music in Golia Monastery, N. Kantouniarés collected songs and wrote for the Phanariot society of the Moldavian capital who had knowledge of and practiced secular and Christian music of Byzantine tradition, as well as of Persian-Arabic.
The acculturation phenomenon is expressed on musical level by combining the modal scales of both traditions (in this specific case, makam rast and the 4th plagal echos).
Like the entire collection, quite rich and diverse in many ways, the revolutionary song belongs to the general movement towards the European civilization to which the Romanian Principalities aspired at the beginning of the 19th century.
Keywords: Niképhoros Kantouniarés, psaltés, composer, teacher of church music; revolutionary song; Byzantine and Arabic-Persian musical traditions; collection of secular music; 1813 Iasi, Moldavia

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Here First!: Young Jenő Janovics and the Moving Pictures

As architect of the Transylvanian silent cinema industry, the name of Jenő Janovics is associated as director, screenwriter, or both to more than half of the 67 known films he produced. From the worldwide successful 1913 drama The Yellow Foal (Sárga Csikó) to the rather abrupt ending in 1920 with Menace (Világrém), his foray into film has attracted growing academic interest in recent years. However, a particular project Janovics developed as a young theatre director has remained largely unknown. The Moving Pictures performance dates back to 1899 and offers valuable insight into both his creative vision on the possibilities of film projection in theatre and the cultural scene of Kolozsvár/Cluj/Cluj-Napoca at the advent of early cinema.
Keywords: early cinema, theatre, kine-attractography, monstration, film lecturer, audience reception

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Din istoria criticii de film din România, 1896-1947

Between 1896 and 1947 we registered 53 authors who wrote film articles in 40 Romanian periodicals. Nineteen of them were writers, five – publicists, five – literary critics, seven – filmmakers, and one – actor. By 1947 there were also eight authors dedicated almost entirely to film criticism: M. Blossoms, Ion I. Cantacuzino, Lazăr Cassvan, B. Cehan, Barbu Florian (Ménalque), Ion Golea, George Theodorescu and Jean Vulpescu (Joseph de Saxa). Only five of them had an almost exclusive activity of film critics because Ion I. Cantacuzino, Ion Golea and George Theodorescu also worked in filmmaking. There were nine cinema magazines that appeared regularly. Hardly two or three generations of critics can be distinguished, that of Felix Aderca, Jean Bart, B. Fundoianu, Alexandru Kirițescu, Adrian Maniu, Henri Gad, Ion Marin Sadoveanu, M. Blossoms, Jean Vulpescu, George Theodorescu, comprising authors who began writing in the 1920s, followed by D.I. Suchianu who began writing in 1928, by those who began writing in the 1930s such as Ion I. Cantacuzino, Horia Igiroșanu, Paul B. Marian, Geo Bogza, Barbu Florian, Ion Golea and those who have written film articles since the 1940s: B. Cehan, Lazăr Cassvan and Victor Iliu.
Keywords: Romanian cinema, film criticism, film periodicals, film festivals, stardom, novelized biography

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The Balkans’ Europolis: Sulina as a Synecdoche

The Danube Delta is a place of historical and geographical interest which has been the subject of a number of representations on film which, despite clear differences between them, nonetheless form a coherent cinematic corpus with common themes and imagery. While situated on the very Eastern periphery of the present-day European Union, the delta and its principal town, Sulina, have had a connection to Europe as a whole in 1880s, due to the large infrastructure works conducted by the multinational Commission of the Danube established in the aftermath of the Crimean War.
The present article gives an account of films since the year 2000 which have made use of the delta as location and which have documented its history as well as the present lives of its inhabitants. In doing so, these films raise questions of history, of centrality and the periphery, of post-communism, of human development, of environmentalism, and of what is meant by 'Europe' itself.
Keywords: Romanian Cinema, Bulgarian Cinema, Hungarian Cinema, Balkan Cinema, Europe, 20th Century history, post-Communism, Eugen Botez (Jean Bart)

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Noi practici creative în teatrul românesc al ultimilor 30 de ani

The study focuses on some of the innovative aesthetic trends in the Romanian theater of the last 30 years, and on the artists who promoted them. Documentary theater, political theater, collaborative practices, multimedia theater, performance, physical theatre, educational theater are some of these trends. The creators who have materialized and on which my paper focuses on are Gianina Cărbunariu, Bogdan Georgescu, Andrea Gavriliu, Gigi Căciuleanu, Ioana Păun etc.
Keywords: Romanian theatre, postcomunism, new tendencies

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A doua venire a marțienilor sau Un viitor fără granițe pentru teatrul radiofonic

The second coming of the Martians or a future without borders for the Romanian Radio Drama
is a contribution that focuses on the aesthetics of radio drama productions through the latest decade, as illustrated by the performances the National Radio Drama Department entered specialized international festivals. As an autonomous genre, Radio Drama has benefited from the evolution of digital technology in the latest decades, but also from the repertoire diversification brought about by promoting original scenarios, specially written for radio productions. The second coming of the Martians or a future without borders for the Romanian Radio Drama identifies several repertoire directions and innovative aesthetic solutions, aiming to highlight the originality and creativity of the Romanian Radio Drama over the latest decade. That Romanian Radio Drama is perfectly synchronized with the current international cultural environment is the starting point of this contribution. And it is supported by the analysis of several examples drawn from audio dramas signed by three internationally award winning directors: Ilinca Stihi, Attila Vizauer and Mihnea Chelaru. Particularly active on an international level over the last 10 years, Radio Romania's Drama Department and its editorial staff have earned a place among the most valued radio play producers in the world, not only by the regular selection of its productions and the awards won at well-established international festivals, but also by organizing seven editions of the International Grand Prix Nova Radio Drama Festival, an event focused on innovation.
Keywords: Radio Drama, Radio Romania, Radio Drama Department, Grand Prix Nova Festival, innovation, Ilinca Stihi, Atttila Vizauer, Mihnea Chelaru

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Alexandra Badea, un teatru fără frontiere și câteva drumuri dus-întors

Ce texte est parti du désir de comprendre pourquoi Alexandra Badea, dramaturge et metteur en scène, née et formée en Roumanie, mais qui s’est forgée une place importante dans le paysage théâtral français contemporain, fait partie en même temps du théâtre roumain. Définir en quel mesure, pourquoi et comment. Surprendre le mélange des points de rencontre, car A. Badea se situe aujourd’hui en même temps ici et là-bas, son écriture, toujours en éveil, dépasse les frontières géographiques et esthétiques. Elle s’inscrit ainsi dans une génération du théâtre roumain de dernières trois décennies, qui a eu la chance de pouvoir travailler ailleurs sans se couper de ses racines. Alexandra Badea commence à écrire directement en français, après avoir monté en Roumanie et en France plusieurs dramaturges de sa génération, un théâtre violent et engagé politiquement, mais elle découvre vite qu’elle a ses propres vérités à dire. Ainsi, chaque fois le moteur de son écrit reste la révolte, en résonance avec les problématiques contemporaines. Pour souligner cette double appartenance, ou le sous-strate roumain qui se cache dans son écriture, je cherche des markers significatifs, présence de la langue maternelle, discrète mais qui se dissimule comme l’eau sous le sable, ou des thématiques liées à son expérience personnelle, l’immigration, les murs, le poids d’un passé qui ne se laisse pas oublier, les « points de non-retour » de notre histoire européenne commune.
Mots-clés: théâtre politique, théâtre documentaire, massacre des tirailleurs sénégalais 1944, la rébellion légionnaire en Roumanie 1941, guerre d’Algérie, Mădălina Constantin, Eugen Jebeleanu, Velica Panduru, Bogdan Zamfir

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Sensurile libertății în teatrul românesc postdecembrist

Suite aux événements de décembre 1989, les artistes roumains de théâtre ont obtenu une liberté totale de mise en scène, laissant derrière eux les pressions idéologiques de la période communiste. De nombreuses questions furent abordées, dont certaines avaient été interdites sous le régime dictatorial. Ainsi, des spectacles emblématiques sont apparus, mais aussi des spectacles qui n'ont pas retenu l'attention du public et des critiques. L'espoir d'aller en avant dans le théâtre roumain vient notamment des jeunes créateurs.
Mots-clés: théâtre roumain, liberté, univers totalitaire, nouveaux thèmes

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Publicul de cerneală

Audience development and audience engagement: two concepts that deal with the audience – an amorphous identity which is rigorously counted in management reports and mentioned ceaselessly in speeches but never identified completely. Still the two directions seem to be the goal of any cultural institution. Audience development is encouraged by European cultural policies and it has been a priority in the cultural field. The hereby paper aims to examine – beyond the managerial statement – how and if state theatre institutions in Romania have managed to design programs that would fall under the category of audience development and/or engagement. How many theatres do really take into account the needs of the audience (is there an authentic dialogue with it?) and how are they integrated in their strategies (when the latter exists)?
Keywords: audience development; theatre audience; cultural programs; cultural mediation

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De la Ah! și Oh! la minimalism sau Cum au forțat independenții noua estetică a teatrului românesc

Around 25 years ago the first two independent theatres opened in Bucharest: LUNI Theatre in the Green Hours bar and ACT Theatre, in a basement once used for interrogations by the former secret police. At that moment there was nowhere for university graduates to put on a play or to act. On the one hand, they were condemned to unemployment, on the other, to the impossibility of expressing themselves artistically. New playwrights unheard of at the time, all made their debuts on these stages. More than a few of those we consider leading directors today would direct plays year after year in independent theatre. More than a few of today’s respected actors would act year after year in independent theatre. And, because the venues they had to work in were small, fitting no more than a hundred spectators, independent theatre is also where multimedia sets were first used. All who passed through ACT or LUNI left their mark and honed their style there. And soon these places would become centres of theatrical effervescence. Independent theatre was not only experimental and was not only aimed at a niche audience. Gradually, it would also attract a loyal public of its own. In these two theatres there was a new approach to acting, in tune with the times, devoid of overly-theatrical declamation and second-hand screams, devoid of melodrama and tears in the eye.
: LUNI Theatre at Green Hours, ACT Theatre, 74 Theatre

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ADRIAN-SILVAN IONESCU, MARIAN ȚUȚUI, SAVAȘ ARSLAN (editori), Balkan Cinema and the Great Wars: Our Story, Peter Lang, Berlin, 2020, 282 p. (recenzie de Mădălina Popa), p. 133

DANA DUMA, Istoria filmului românesc de animație, 1920-2020, Editura Academiei Române, 2020, 404 p., cu o introducere de Angelo Mitchievici (recenzie de Mihai Fulger), p. 139

EMANUEL TÂNJALĂ, Album fotografic. Lumea filmului românesc, Ed. Ecou Transilvan, Cluj-Napoca, 2019, 340 p. [din care 317 planșe fotografice] (recenzie de Aurelian Stroe), p. 142

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Copyright © G. Oprescu Institute of Art History, 2010